F. ). Toulouse and G. Buitrón, The Netherlands), Bram Versprille (Biothane Systems International) and Gilberto Salerno (Biotecs, Brazil) who provided information about the different treatment systems presented in this article and to Cecilia Alonso who revised the abstract in Spanish

A. T. Aitken, A. M. Kennedy, and M. R. Player, Pollution control in CSR's sugar mills and refineries, International Sugar Journal, vol.82, issue.984, pp.370-376, 1980.

J. Baguant and T. Ramjeawon, Water management in Mauritius, International Sugar Journal, vol.98, pp.351-358, 1171.

D. Bevan, The disposal of sugar mill effluents in Queensland, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.1504-1516, 1971.

J. Bruijn, Effluent treatment in the South African sugar industry, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.2313-2326, 1977.

R. S. Brookes, Expanded granular sludge bed digester -A case study: the first EGSB system in the sugar industry, Unpublished Proceedings "Seminar on Anaerobic Treatment of High Strength Agricultural and Industrial Wastes, pp.14-15, 2001.

C. X. Calero, D. D. Mara, and M. R. Peña, Anoxic ponds in the sugar cane industry: a case study from Colombia, Water Science and Technology, vol.42, pp.10-11, 2000.

L. J. Chang, P. Y. Yang, and S. A. Whalen, Management of sugarcane mill wastewater in Hawaii, Water Science and Technology, vol.22, issue.9, pp.131-140, 1990.

M. A. Clarke, Cane Sugar, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4 th Edition, pp.20-44, 1997.

P. Conil, M. Jiménez, D. Valle, and V. , Treatment and use of domestic wastewater with UASB reactors and trickling filters in the Altiplano of Guatemala, Proceedings IV Latin-American Workshop and Conference on Anaerobic Digestion Spanish), pp.145-158, 1996.

M. Cot, L. Hesran, J. Miailhes, P. Cot, S. Hougard et al., Health indicators in the population in an agro-industrial complex in South Cameroon, Cahiers Santé, vol.5, issue.3, pp.167-180, 1995.

D. Defour, D. Derycke, J. Liessens, and P. Pipyn, Field experience with different systems for biomass accumulation in anaerobic reactor technology, Water Science and Technology, vol.30, issue.12, pp.181-191, 1994.

C. J. Degarie, T. Crapper, B. M. Howe, B. F. Burke, and P. J. Mccarthy, Floating geomembranes covers for odour control and biogas collection and utilization in municipal lagoons, Water Science and Technology, vol.42, pp.10-11, 2000.

W. W. Eckenfelder, J. B. Patoczka, and G. W. Pullian, Anaerobic versus aerobic treatment in the USA In: Anaerobic Digestion, Proceedings 5 th International Symposium, pp.22-26, 1988.

E. Mamouni, R. Guiot, S. Mercier, R. Safi, B. Samson et al., Liming impact on granules activity of the multiplate anaerobic reactor (MPAR) treating whey permeate, Bioprocess Engineering, vol.53, issue.1-2, pp.47-53, 1995.
DOI : 10.2175/WER.65.2.11

C. Fonade, N. Doubrovine, C. Maranges, and J. Morchain, Influence of a transverse flowrate on the oxygen transfer performance in heterogeneous aeration: case of hydro-ejectors, Water Research, vol.35, issue.14, pp.3429-3435, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00042-2

C. Fonade, J. L. Rols, G. Goma, N. Doubrovine, M. Bermejo et al., Improvement of industrial wastewater treatment by aerated lagoon: case studies, Water Science and Technology, vol.42, pp.5-6, 2000.

G. Encina, P. A. Fernández-polanco, F. , J. García, and C. , Treatment of sugar mill wastewater. Part 1. problems and solutions, Spanish), pp.151-155, 1986.

L. H. Habets and H. J. Knelissen, In line biological water regeneration in a zero discharge recycle paper mill, Water Science and Technology, vol.35, issue.2-3, pp.41-48, 1997.

R. F. Hickey, W. M. Wu, M. C. Veiga, and R. Jones, Start-up, operation, monitoring and control of high rate anaerobic treatment systems, Water Science and Technology, issue.8, pp.24-207, 1991.

W. D. Hsieh, H. K. Sheen, and C. H. Chen, An approach to zero-effluent in cane sugar factories, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.226-231, 1995.

L. Huss, Treatment of sugar factory waste waters, The Sugar Journal, vol.41, issue.8, pp.9-11, 1979.

C. R. Jensen and G. T. Schumann, Implementing a zero effluent philosophy at a cane sugar factory, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.74-79, 2001.

J. Kappeler and W. Gujer, Influences of wastewater composition and operating conditions on activated sludge bulking and scum formation, Water Science and Technology, vol.30, issue.11, pp.181-189, 1994.

R. Kleerebezem and H. Macarie, Treating industrial wastewater: anaerobic digestion comes of age, Chemical Engineering, vol.110, issue.4, pp.56-64, 2003.

C. Kuzminski, J. I. Palencia, F. Fernández-polanco, P. A. García, and J. Iza, Wastewater reclamation and reuse at the sugarbeet factory ACOR-1, Water Science and Technology, vol.24, issue.9, pp.303-312, 1991.

J. Lescure and P. Bourlet, Treatment of wastewater. I. Presentation of the first prototype for the anaerobic treatment of sugar mill wastewater installed in France, Sucrerie Française, vol.120, pp.99-102, 1979.

J. Lescure, P. Bourlet, D. Verrier, and G. Albagnac, Anaerobic treatment of beet-factory waste waters, Sugar Technology Reviews, vol.13, pp.179-231, 1986.

G. Lettinga, A. F. Van-velsen, S. W. Hobma, W. De-zeeuw, and A. Klapwijk, Use of the upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor concept for biological wastewater treatment, especially for anaerobic treatment, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol.12, issue.4, pp.699-734, 1980.
DOI : 10.1002/bit.260220402

&. Metcalf, . Eddy, and . Inc, Wastewater engineering: treatment disposal reuse, 1991.

J. R. Miller, Treatment of effluent from raw sugar factories, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.1529-1536, 1971.

C. Naehle, Waste water treatment in a sugar factory, International Sugar Journal, vol.92, issue.32, pp.43-48, 1095.

C. Nähle, The contact process for the anaerobic treatment of wastewater: technology, design and experiences, Water Science and Technology, vol.24, issue.8, pp.179-191, 1991.

J. C. Noël and J. P. Vellaud, Prevention of the pollution caused by the sugarcane industry, 1977.

N. J. Pawar, G. M. Pondhe, and S. F. Patil, Groundwater pollution due to sugar-mill effluent, at Sonai, Maharashtra, India, Environmental Geology, vol.34, issue.2-3, pp.151-158, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s002540050266

R. Pearson and L. Penridge, The effects of pollution by organic sugar mill effluent on the macro-invertebrates of a stream in tropical Queensland, Australia, Journal of Environmental Management, vol.24, pp.205-215, 1987.

L. Prendl and H. Kroiß, Bulking sludge prevention by an aerobic selector, Water Science and Technology, vol.3889, pp.19-27, 1998.

B. S. Purchase, Disposal of liquid effluents from cane sugar factories, Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp.49-59, 1995.

T. Ramjeawon, Cleaner production in Mauritian cane-sugar factories, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.8, issue.6, pp.503-510, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0959-6526(00)00020-2

T. Ramjeawon and J. Baguant, Evaluation of Critical BOD Loadings from Mauritian Sugar Factories to Streams and Standards Setting, Journal of Environmental Management, vol.45, issue.2, pp.163-176, 1995.
DOI : 10.1006/jema.1995.0065

T. Ramjeawon, J. Baguant, and N. Horan, Anaerobic treatment of a weakly buffered carbohydrate wastewater by a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process, Proceedings of the 8 th International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion, pp.25-29, 1997.

S. Hernández, E. P. , T. Cordoba, and L. , Anaerobic treatment of sugar-mill wastewater in downflow fixed-bed reactors, Bioresource Technology, vol.48, issue.2, pp.179-181, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-8524(94)90207-0

C. A. Sastry, V. Srinivas, Y. V. Subrahmanyam, and V. L. Lolla, Treatment of sugar mill wastewater using anaerobic filter, Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, issue.8, pp.10-570, 1990.

H. Schiweck, H. Kutschke, and C. Nähle, Anaerobic waste-water treatment plant in the Offstein factory, International Sugar Journal, vol.87, pp.232-238, 1044.

I. Takougang, P. Tchounwou, and P. Barbazan, Impact of sugar mill effluents on the distribution of fresh water snails in the agroindustrial zone of Mbandjock (Cameroon), Cahiers Santé, vol.3, pp.178-182, 1993.

L. Van-den-berg, Developments in methanogenesis from industrial waste water, Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol.30, issue.8, pp.975-990, 1984.
DOI : 10.1139/m84-153

D. Verrier, J. Lescure, B. Delannoy, and G. Albagnac, Full-scale methanization of sugary wastewaters in a downflow anaerobic filter, Proceedings Energy from Biomass, 1985.

W. Von-der-emde and H. Kroiss, A low cost and high-efficiency solution for sugar factory waste water treatment, Water Science and Technology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.75-82, 1991.

P. Y. Yang, L. J. Chang, and S. A. Whalen, Anaerobic/aerobic pretreatment of sugarcane mill wastewater for application of drip irrigation, Water Science and Technology, vol.24, issue.9, pp.243-250, 1991.

J. C. Young and B. S. Yang, Design considerations for full-scale anaerobic filters, Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, issue.9, pp.61-1576, 1989.