Apport de la combinaison cartographie cognitive/ontologie dans la compréhension de la perception du fonctionnement d'un écosystème récifo-lagonaire de Nouvelle-Calédonie par les acteurs locaux

Abstract : The people of the different South Pacific island countries have developed a strong link with the marine resources available to them. These resources represent one of their main sources of food and income. Every impact, natural or human-caused, on these resources, or their environment, can be detrimental to the sustainability of those resources. The development of management measures is a priority, even if little knowledge is known on these resources. The development of a mining complex in the north-western lagoon of New Caledonia will generate direct and indirect perturbations, at different scales, on the whole "socio-ecosystem" (which include several villages and local tribes). Among those perturbations, the increase of the population size will have one of the most damaging effects on the evolution of the finfish resources of the reef and lagoon. Scientific knowledge available on the functioning of the reef and lagoon ecosystem is fragmented and insufficient in terms of gaining a dynamic insight and a historical perspective. Therefore, the knowledge of the local people must be taken into account. The main purpose of this work is to set up a methodology in order to grasp this traditional knowledge. This methodology, drawing individual cognitive maps, is based on the representation that local stakeholders have on the functioning of the coral reef system. An ontology is set up to palliate the semantic heterogeneity encountered during the initial sketch of the maps and is also used to build synthetic group maps according to the different categories of stakeholders. It is used to classify the terms used during the drawing of the maps and has a hierarchical tree shape with a depth of 5 levels. By combining cognitive mapping and ontology, each map (individual and group map) can be represented in 5 different simplification levels. The representations of each stakeholder and category are compared against one another using two different approaches (Markoczy & Goldberg distance and centrality). They are also represented in a 2 dimensional space with MDS. The main results show a strong dichotomy between villagers and tribe inhabitants, both in the structure of the functioning of the coral reef system and the significance given to the different components of this system. These results provide a solid foundation, in terms of setting up communication measures, to develop an integrated management process for the coral reef lagoon environment and its associated resources.
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Denis Poignonec. Apport de la combinaison cartographie cognitive/ontologie dans la compréhension de la perception du fonctionnement d'un écosystème récifo-lagonaire de Nouvelle-Calédonie par les acteurs locaux. Sciences de l'environnement. Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-01171603⟩

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