Y. H. Kerr, P. Waldteufel, J. P. Wigneron, J. M. Martinuzzi, J. Font et al., Soil moisture retrieval from space: the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.39, issue.8, pp.1729-1735, 2001.
DOI : 10.1109/36.942551

W. Wagner, G. Bloschl, P. Pampaloni, J. C. Calvet, B. Bizzarri et al., Operational readiness of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for hydrologic applications, Nordic Hydrology, vol.38, issue.1, pp.1-20, 2007.
DOI : 10.2166/nh.2007.029

G. S. Lagerloef, C. T. Swift, D. M. Le, and . Vine, BSea surface salinity: The next remote sensing challenge, pp.44-50, 1995.

R. M. Lerner and J. P. Hollinger, Analysis of 1.4 GHz Radiometric measurements from Skylab, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.6, issue.4, pp.251-269, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(77)90047-5

Y. H. Kerr, Soil moisture from space: Where are we?, Hydrogeology Journal, vol.73, issue.3, pp.117-120, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s10040-006-0095-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00294107

A. C. Beljaars, P. Viterbo, M. J. Miller, and A. K. Betts, The Anomalous Rainfall over the United States during July 1993: Sensitivity to Land Surface Parameterization and Soil Moisture Anomalies, Monthly Weather Review, vol.124, issue.3, pp.362-383, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<0362:TAROTU>2.0.CO;2

A. O. , K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor et al., BRegions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation, Science, vol.305, pp.1138-1140, 2004.

S. I. Seneviratne, R. D. Koster, Z. Guo, P. A. Dirmeyer, E. Kowalczyk et al., Soil Moisture Memory in AGCM Simulations: Analysis of Global Land???Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol.7, issue.5, pp.1090-1112, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JHM533.1

G. S. Lagerloef10-]-g and . Lagerloef, BSatellite remote sensing: Salinity measurements,[ in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences BSatellite Measurements of salinity, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, pp.2511-2516, 2000.

D. Entekhabi, I. Rodriguez-iturbe, and F. Castelli, Mutual interaction of soil moisture state and atmospheric processes, Journal of Hydrology, vol.184, issue.1-2, pp.3-17, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-1694(95)02965-6

R. W. Schmitt, BSalinity and the global water cycle, pp.12-19, 2008.

T. J. Schmugge, W. P. Kustas, J. C. Ritchie, T. J. Jackson, and A. Rango, Remote sensing in hydrology, Advances in Water Resources, vol.25, issue.8-12, pp.1367-1385, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00065-9

D. M. Le-vine, M. Kao, A. B. Tanner, C. T. Swift, and A. Griffis, BInitial results in the development of a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer, IEEE Trans. Geosci

C. S. Ruf, C. T. Swift, A. B. Tanner, D. M. Le, and . Vine, BInterferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometry for remote sensing of the earth, IEEE Trans. Geosci

A. P. Thibaut, Y. H. Kerr, B. Le-stradic, J. C. Magnan, M. Avignon et al., BGeneration of a high resolution microwave brightness. Temperature map for assessing aperture synthesis radiometer performances,[ presented at the IEEE Int, 1990.

Y. H. Kerr, BRAMSES: Proposition de mission spatiale sur mini satellite au colloque de prospective du CNES (TAOB),[ CESBIO, 1997.

Y. H. Kerr, BThe SMOS mission: MIRAS on RAMSES. A proposal to the call for Earth explorer opportunity mission,[ CESBIO, 1998.

M. J. Escorihuela, Y. H. Kerr, P. De-rosnay, K. Saleh, J. P. Wigneron et al., Effects of Dew on the Radiometric Signal of a Grass Field at L-Band, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol.6, issue.1, pp.67-71, 2009.
DOI : 10.1109/LGRS.2008.2000714

G. Balsamo, J. F. Mahfouf, S. Belair, and G. Deblonde, A Land Data Assimilation System for Soil Moisture and Temperature: An Information Content Study, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol.8, issue.6, pp.1225-1242, 2007.
DOI : 10.1175/2007JHM819.1

P. A. Dirmeyer and K. L. Brubaker, BContrasting evaporative moisture sources during the drought of 1988 and the flood of 1993, J. Geophys. Res.VAtmos, vol.104, pp.19-383, 1999.

H. Douville, Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part II: Interannual Variability, Journal of Climate, vol.15, issue.7, pp.701-720, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0701:IOSMOT>2.0.CO;2

M. Drusch, BInitializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's integrated forecast system and the TMI soil moisture data set, J. Geophys. Res.VAtmos, vol.112, 2007.

J. Johannessen, C. L. Provost, H. Drange, M. Srokosz, P. Woodworth et al., BObserving the ocean from space: Emerging capabilities in Europe, Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century, pp.198-208, 2002.

G. S. Lagerloef, J. Boutin, X. Carton, Y. Chao, T. Delcroix et al., BResolving the global surface salinity field and variations by integrating satellite and in situ observations, 2009.

C. Henocq, J. Boutin, F. Petitcolin, G. Reverdin, S. Arnault et al., BVertical variability of near-surface salinity in the tropics: Consequences for L-band radiometer calibration and validation, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol, 2010.

G. Lagerloef and T. Delcroix, BSea surface salinity; a regional case study for the tropical Pacific,[ in Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century; A Strategy for Global Observations, p.604, 2001.

C. A. Paulson and G. S. Lagerloef, BFresh surface lenses caused by heavy rain over the Western Pacific warm pool during TOGA

. Kerr, The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements ofthe Global Water Cycle, | Proceedings of the IEEE 17, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043032

R. Lukas and E. Lindstrom, The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.90, issue.S01, pp.3343-335731, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/90JC01951

A. A. Kortzinger, BA significant CO 2 sink in the tropical Atlantic Ocean associated with the Amazon River plume, Geophys. Res. Lett, 2003.

N. Reul, S. Saux-picart, B. Chapron, D. Vandemark, J. Tournadre et al., BDemonstration of ocean surface salinity microwave measurements from space using AMSR-E data over the Amazon plume, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.36, pp.10-1029, 2009.

J. P. Wigneron, P. Ferrazzoli, J. C. Calvet, Y. H. Kerr, and P. Bertuzzi, A parametric study on passive and active microwave observations over a soybean crop, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.37, issue.6, pp.2728-2733, 1999.
DOI : 10.1109/36.803421

M. S. Moran, D. C. Hymer, J. G. Qi, and Y. Kerr, Comparison of ERS-2 SAR and Landsat TM imagery for monitoring agricultural crop and soil conditions, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.79, issue.2-3, pp.243-252, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00276-0

R. D. Magagi and Y. H. Kerr, BRetrieval of soil moisture and vegetation characteristics by use of ERS-1 Wind scatterometer over arid and semi arid areas, J. Hydrol, vol.36, pp.188-189, 1997.

A. R. Magagi and Y. H. Kerr, BEstimating surface soil moisture and soil roughness from ERS-1 wind scatterometer data over semi-arid area: Use of the co-polarisation ratio,[ Remote Sens, Environ, vol.37, pp.432-445, 2001.

A. C. Gruhier, P. De-rosnay, S. Hasenauer, T. R. Holmes, R. De-jeu et al., BSoil moisture active and passive microwave products: Intercomparison and evaluation over a Sahelian site, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 2010.

T. J. Schmugge, J. R. Wang, and G. Asrar, Results from the Push Broom Microwave Radiometer flights over the Konza Prairie in 1985, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.26, issue.5, pp.590-597, 1985.
DOI : 10.1109/36.7684

Y. H. Kerr and E. G. Njoku, A semiempirical model for interpreting microwave emission from semiarid land surfaces as seen from space, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.28, issue.3, pp.384-393, 1990.
DOI : 10.1109/36.54364

A. D. Le-vine and M. Haken, BRFI at L-band in synthetic aperture radiometers,[ presented at the IEEE Int, Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp, 2003.

J. P. Wigneron, Y. Kerr, and L. Prévot, Retrieval of soil and vegetation features from passive microwave measurements, Remote Sensing Reviews, vol.33, issue.3, pp.157-177, 1997.
DOI : 10.1080/02757259709532336

J. P. Wigneron, Y. Kerr, P. Waldteufel, K. Saleh, M. J. Escorihuela et al., L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) Model: Description and calibration against experimental data sets over crop fields, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.107, issue.4, pp.639-655, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2006.10.014

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00387991

J. Wigneron, J. Calvet, P. De-rosnay, Y. Kerr, P. Waldteufel et al., Soil Moisture Retrievals From Biangular L-Band Passive Microwave Observations, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol.1, issue.4, pp.277-281, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/LGRS.2004.834594

M. Schwank, M. Stähli, H. Wydler, J. Leuenberger, C. Mätzler et al., Microwave L-band emission of freezing soil, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.42, issue.6, pp.1252-1261, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2004.825592

T. P. Boyer, S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, R. A. Locarnini, and H. E. Garcia, BLinear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.32, 1955.

D. Roemmich, G. C. Johnson, S. Riser, R. Davis, J. Gilson et al., BThe Argo program observing the Global Ocean with profiling floats, pp.34-43, 2009.

G. Reverdin, P. Blouch, J. Boutin, P. Niiler, J. Rolland et al., Surface Salinity Measurements???COSMOS 2005 Experiment in the Bay of Biscay, BSurface salinity measurementsVCOSMOS 2005 experiment in the Bay of Biscay, pp.1643-1654, 2007.
DOI : 10.1175/JTECH2079.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00192075

L. A. Klein and C. T. Swift, An improved model for the dielectric constant of sea water at microwave frequencies, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.25, issue.1, pp.104-111, 1977.
DOI : 10.1109/TAP.1977.1141539

J. Font, A. Camps, A. Borges, M. Martin-neira, J. Boutin et al., BSMOS: The challenging sea surface salinity measurement from space, IEEE Proc, pp.10-1109, 2009.

J. Boutin, P. Waldteufel, N. Martin, G. Caudal, and E. Dinnat, BSalinity retrieved from SMOS measurements over Global Ocean: Imprecisions due to surface roughness and temperature uncertainties, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol, vol.2153, pp.1432-1447, 2004.

N. Skou, BAtmospheric corrections for SSS retrievals,[ presented at the 8th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications, 2004.

N. Skou, BFaraday rotation and L-band oceanographic measurements, Radio Sci, vol.38, p.8059, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002rs002671

J. Boutin, P. Waldteufel, N. Martin, Y. Kerr, G. Caudal et al., BUncertainties on salinity retrieved from SMOS measurements over Global Ocean,[ presented at the IEEE Int, Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp, 2003.

D. , L. Vine, A. Saji, Y. H. Kerr, W. J. Wilson et al., BComparison of model predictions with measurements of galactic background noise at L-band, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.43, issue.9, pp.2018-2023, 2005.

S. Zine, J. Boutin, J. Font, N. Reul, P. Waldteufel et al., BOverview of the SMOS sea surface salinity prototype processor, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.46, issue.3, pp.2061-2072, 2008.

N. Reul, J. Tenerelli, N. Floury, and B. Chapron, BEarth viewing L-band radiometer sensing of sea surface scattered celestial sky radiation. Part II: Application to SMOS, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.46, issue.3, pp.659-674, 2008.

N. Reul, J. Tenerelli, B. Chapron, and P. Waldteufel, BModelling sun glitter at L-band for the sea surface salinity remote sensing with SMOS, IEEE Trans. Geosci

H. Drange, P. Schlüssel, and M. Srokosz, BStudy of critical requirements for ocean salinity retrieval using a low frequency microwave radiometer, 1999.

S. Philipps and C. Boone, BImpact of SMOS space-time averaging on sea surface salinity retrieval

G. Lagerloef, F. R. Colomb, D. Le-vine, F. Wentz, S. Yueh et al., BThe Aquarius/Sac-D mission: Designed to meet the salinity remote-sensing challenge, pp.68-81, 2008.

D. Entekhabi, E. G. Njoku, P. Houser, M. Spencer, T. Doiron et al., The hydrosphere State (hydros) Satellite mission: an Earth system pathfinder for global mapping of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.42, issue.10, pp.2184-2195, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2004.834631

P. Thibaut and Y. H. Kerr, BApplication of aperture synthesis in passive microware remote sensing,[ presented at the URSI Commission F: Signature Problems in Microwave Remote Sensing, 1990.

F. Bayle, J. P. Wigneron, Y. H. Kerr, P. Waldteufel, E. Anterrieu et al., Two-dimensional synthetic aperture images over a land surface scene, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.40, issue.3, pp.710-714, 2002.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2002.1000330

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00005157

P. Waldteufel, J. Boutin, and Y. Kerr, BSelecting an optimal configuration for the soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, Radio Sci, vol.38, 2003.

Y. H. Kerr, P. Waldteufel, J. Wigneron, J. Martinuzzi, J. Font et al., Soil moisture retrieval from space: the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.39, issue.8, pp.1729-1735, 2001.
DOI : 10.1109/36.942551

J. Wigneron, P. Waldteufel, A. Chanzy, J. C. Calvet, and Y. Kerr, BTwo-D microwave interferometer retrieval capabilities of over land surfaces (SMOS Mission),[ Remote Sens, Environ, vol.73, pp.270-282, 2000.

K. D. Mcmullan, M. A. Brown, M. Martin-neira, W. Rits, S. Ekholm et al., SMOS: The Payload, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.46, issue.3, pp.594-605, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2007.914809

Y. Kerr and P. Waldteufel, BSMOS level 2 processor high level requirements,[ CBSA, 2004.

. Kerr, The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements of the Global Water Cycle [72] Y. Kerr and P. Waldteufel, BMission products and data processing requirements for SMOS,[ CBSA, p.17, 2003.

E. Anterrieu, A resolving matrix approach for synthetic aperture imaging radiometers, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.42, issue.8, pp.1649-1656, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2004.830940

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00005159

Y. H. Kerr, P. Waldteufel, P. Richaume, P. Ferrazzoli, and J. P. Wigneron, BSMOS level 2 processor soil moisture algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD),[ CESBIO, SO-TN-ESL-SM-GS-0001, V3.a, 2008.

J. Font, J. Boutin, N. Reul, P. Waldteufel, C. Gabarró et al., BSMOS sea surface salinity level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document, p.5, 2007.

J. M. Sabater, C. Rudiger, J. C. Calvet, N. Fritz, L. Jarlan et al., Joint assimilation of surface soil moisture and LAI observations into a land surface model, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.148, issue.8-9, pp.1362-1373, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.04.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/meteo-00348124

O. Merlin, A. Chehbouni, Y. H. Kerr, and D. C. Goodrich, A downscaling method for distributing surface soil moisture within a microwave pixel: Application to the Monsoon '90 data, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.101, issue.3, pp.379-389, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00294115

O. Merlin, J. P. Walker, A. Chehbouni, and Y. Kerr, Towards deterministic downscaling of SMOS soil moisture using MODIS derived soil evaporative efficiency, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.112, issue.10, pp.3935-3946, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2008.06.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00390439

P. Ferrazzoli, L. Guerriero, and J. Wigneron, BSimulating L-band emission of forests in view of future satellite applications, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.40, issue.12, pp.2692-2708, 2002.

J. P. Grant, K. Saleh-contell, J. P. Wigneron, M. Guglielmetti, Y. H. Kerr et al., Calibration of the L-MEB Model Over a Coniferous and a Deciduous Forest, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.46, issue.3, pp.808-818, 2007.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2007.914801

K. Saleh, J. P. Wigneron, P. De-rosnay, J. C. Calvet, and Y. Kerr, Semi-empirical regressions at L-band applied to surface soil moisture retrievals over grass, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.101, issue.3, pp.415-426, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00294176

M. A. Brown, F. Torres, I. Corbella, A. Colliander, and . Bsmos-calibration, SMOS Calibration, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.46, issue.3, pp.646-658, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2007.914810

A. Colliander, L. Ruokokoski, J. Suomela, K. Veijola, J. Kettunen et al., Development and Calibration of SMOS Reference Radiometer, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.45, issue.7, pp.1967-1977, 2007.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2007.894055

F. Cabot, Y. H. Kerr, and P. Waldteufel, BCalibration of SMOS geolocation biases, Proc. IEEE Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp, pp.1-12, 2007.

M. R. Drinkwater, N. Floury, and M. Tedesco, BL-band ice-sheet brightness temperatures at Dome C, Antarctica: Spectral emission modelling, temporal stability and impact of the ionosphere, Ann. Glaciol, vol.3993, pp.391-396, 2005.

G. Macelloni, P. Pampaloni, M. Brogioni, E. Santi, A. Cagnati et al., An Experimental campaign at dome-C Antarctica for the calibration of space-borne low-frequency microwave radiometers, 2004.

P. De-rosnay, J. C. Calvet, Y. Kerr, J. P. Wigneron, F. Lemaitre et al., BSMOSREX: A long term field campaign experiment for soil moisture and land surface processes remote sensing, Remote Sens. Environ, vol.10295, pp.377-389, 2006.

Y. H. Kerr, B. Rougé, F. Cabot, P. Richaume, J. Souyris et al., The new generation,[ presented at the 11th Specialist Meeting Microw, Remote Sens. Environ, 2010.