M. Y. Bader, M. Rietkerk, and A. K. Bregt, A Simple Spatial Model Exploring Positive Feedbacks at Tropical Alpine Treelines, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, vol.40, issue.2, pp.269-278, 2008.
DOI : 10.1657/1523-0430(07-024)[BADER]2.0.CO;2

M. Y. Bader and J. J. Ruijten, A topography-based model of forest cover at the alpine tree line in the tropical Andes, Journal of Biogeography, vol.23, issue.4, pp.711-723, 2008.
DOI : 10.2307/3237182

J. D. Fridley, Downscaling Climate over Complex Terrain: High Finescale (<1000 m) Spatial Variation of Near-Ground Temperatures in a Montane Forested Landscape (Great Smoky Mountains)*, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.48, issue.5, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JAMC2084.1

J. H. Friedman and J. J. Meulman, Multiple additive regression trees with application in epidemiology, Statistics in Medicine, vol.14, issue.9, pp.1365-1381, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.1501

P. Fu and P. M. Rich, A geometric solar radiation model with applications in agriculture and forestry, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol.37, issue.1-3, pp.25-35, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1699(02)00115-1

M. Garcia, D. Raes, R. Allen, and C. Herbas, Dynamics of reference evapotranspiration in the 706, 2004.

M. Garcia, D. Raes, S. E. Jacobsen, and T. Michel, Agroclimatic constraints for rainfed agriculture in the Bolivian Altiplano, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.71, issue.1, pp.109-121, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.02.005

R. Garreaud, M. Vuille, and A. C. Clement, The climate of the Altiplano: observed current conditions and mechanisms of past changes, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.194, issue.1-3, pp.711-194, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00269-4

R. D. Garreaud and P. Aceituno, Interannual Rainfall Variability over the South American Altiplano, Journal of Climate, vol.14, issue.12, p.713, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2779:IRVOTS>2.0.CO;2

S. Geerts, D. Raes, M. Garcia, D. Castillo, C. Buytaert et al., Agro-climatic suitability 715 mapping for crop production in the Bolivian Altiplano: a case study for quinoa Agricultural and Forest 716, 2006.

R. Geiger, The Climate Near the Ground, American Journal of Physics, vol.19, issue.3, p.718, 1971.
DOI : 10.1119/1.1932763

P. E. Gessler, O. A. Chadwick, F. Chamran, L. Althouse, and K. Holmes, Modeling soil- 719, 2000.

J. P. Giovannettone and A. P. Barros, Probing Regional Orographic Controls of Precipitation and Cloudiness in the Central Andes Using Satellite Data, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.167-182, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JHM973.1

J. A. Gonzalez, M. G. Gallardo, C. Boero, L. Cruz, M. Prado et al., Altitudinal and 724 seasonal variation of protective and photosynthetic pigments in leaves of the world's highest elevation 725 trees Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae) Acta Oecologica, pp.36-41, 2007.

E. Grötzbach and C. Stadel, Mountain peoples and cultures, p.727, 1997.

R. C. Harlow, E. J. Burke, R. L. Scott, W. J. Shuttleworth, C. M. Brown et al., Derivation 729 of temperature lapse rates in semi-arid south-eastern Arizona, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, pp.1179-1185, 2004.

G. Hoch and C. Körner, Growth, demography and carbon relations of Polylepis trees at the world's highest treeline, Functional Ecology, vol.5, issue.6, pp.941-951, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00035008

O. Langvall and M. Ottonson-löfvenius, Effect of shelterwood density on nocturnal near-ground 737, 2002.

R. Lawrence, A. Bunn, S. Powell, and M. Zambon, Classification of remotely sensed imagery 740, 2004.

L. Lindkvist, T. Gustavsson, and J. Bogren, A frost assessment method for mountainous areas, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.102, issue.1, p.743, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00087-8

T. R. Lookingbill and D. L. Urban, Spatial estimation of air temperature differences for landscape- 745 scale studies in montane environments Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, pp.141-151, 2003.

A. L. Luers, The surface of vulnerability: An analytical framework for examining environmental change, Global Environmental Change, vol.15, issue.3, pp.214-223, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.04.003

J. D. Lundquist, N. Pepin, and C. Rochford, Automated algorithm for mapping regions of cold-air 749 pooling in complex terrain, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.113, 2008.

S. J. Marshall, M. J. Sharp, D. O. Burgess, and F. S. Anslow, Near-surface-temperature lapse rates on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada: implications for regional downscaling of temperature, International Journal of Climatology, vol.13, issue.3, pp.385-398, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.1396

V. Misra, P. A. Dirmeyer, and B. P. Kirtman, Dynamic downscaling of seasonal simulations over 758, 2003.

L. Nagy, G. Grabherr, C. Körner, and . Thompson, Alpine biodiversity in Europe, p.760, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-18967-8

G. Navarro and W. Ferreira, Mapa de vegetación de Bolivie a escala 1:250.000, 2007.

T. R. Oke, The temperature profile near the ground on calm clear nights, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.39, issue.407, p.764, 1970.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49709640703

M. Parisien and M. A. Moritz, Environmental controls on the distribution of wildfire at multiple spatial scales, Ecological Monographs, vol.62, issue.1, pp.127-154, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00199-0

R. A. Pielke and P. Mehring, Use of Mesoscale Climatology in Mountainous Terrain to Improve the Spatial Representation of Mean Monthly Temperatures, Monthly Weather Review, vol.105, issue.1, pp.108-112, 1977.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0108:UOMCIM>2.0.CO;2

T. G. Pypker, M. H. Unsworth, B. Lamb, E. Allwine, S. Edburg et al., Cold air drainage in a forested valley: investigating the feasibility of monitoring ecosystem 771 metabolism Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, J, vol.770, issue.145, pp.149-166, 2007.

. Applications, 775 R Development Core Team R: a language and environment for statistical computing, pp.702-714, 2006.

F. Rada, C. García-núñez, and S. Rangel, Low temperature resistance in saplings and ramets of 778, 2009.

G. Rana, R. M. Ferrara, N. Martinelli, P. Personnic, and P. Cellier, Estimating energy fluxes from 780 sloping crops using standard agrometeorological measurements and topography, p.781, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.05.010

J. Ronchail, Advections polaires en Bolivie : mise en évidence et caractérisation des effets 783 climatiques, Hydrologie Continentale, vol.4, pp.49-56, 1989.

V. Sadras, D. Roget, and M. Krause, Dynamic cropping strategies for risk management in dry-land farming systems, Agricultural Systems, vol.76, issue.3, pp.929-948, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00010-0

F. Santibañez, L. Morales, J. De-la-fuente, P. Cellier, and A. Huete, Topoclimatic modeling for minimum temperature prediction at a regional scale in the Central Valley of Chile*, Agronomie, vol.17, issue.6-7, pp.307-788, 1997.
DOI : 10.1051/agro:19970601

S. C. Saunders, J. Q. Chen, T. R. Crow, and K. D. Brosofske, Hierarchical relationships between 790, 1998.

S. France, STATISTICA (logiciel d'analyse de données), version 7, 2005.

J. W. Snow, The climates of northern South America, p.793, 1975.

D. M. Theobald, T. Spies, J. Kline, B. Maxwell, N. T. Hobbs et al., ECOLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR RURAL LAND-USE PLANNING, Ecological Applications, vol.15, issue.6, pp.1906-1914, 2005.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.95458.x

C. Troll, The Cordilleras of the tropical Americas: aspects of climatic, p.797, 1968.

D. Trombotto, E. Buk, and J. Hernández, Monitoring of mountain permafrost in the Central 800, 1997.

A. A. Turnipseed, D. E. Anderson, P. D. Blanken, W. M. Baugh, and R. K. Monson, Airflows and 805 turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain: Part 1. Canopy and local effects Agricultural and 806, 2003.

D. Urban, C. Miller, P. Halpin, and N. Stephenson, Forest gradient response in Sierran 808 landscapes: the physical template, Landscape Ecology, vol.15, issue.7, pp.603-620, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1008183331604

A. Vassas, M. Vieira-pak, and J. R. Duprat, El auge de la quinua: cambios y perspectivas desde 810 una visión social, pp.31-35, 2008.

M. C. , R. Murcia, J. F. Avalos-roldán, G. J. Palacios, and E. , Visualizing Future Climate in Latin 813, 2007.

. America, results from the application of the Earth Simulator

M. Vuille, B. Francou, P. Wagnon, I. Juen, G. Kaser et al., Climate 818, 2008.

Z. Wan, New refinements and validation of the MODIS Land-Surface Temperature/Emissivity products, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.112, issue.1, pp.59-74, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2006.06.026

K. Wang, Z. Li, and M. Cribb, Estimation of evaporative fraction from a combination of day and 822 night land surface temperatures and NDVI: a new method to determine the Priestley-Taylor parameter, p.823, 2006.

W. Wang, S. Liang, and T. Meyers, Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.112, issue.3, pp.623-635, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2007.05.024