L. S. Adair and P. Gordon-larsen, Maturational timing and overweight prevalence in US adolescent girls, Am J Public Health, vol.91, pp.642-644, 2001.

E. Benefice, Growth spurt, relative fat distribution and physical activity of Senegalese rural male adolescents, Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy, vol.3, pp.55-64, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00229731

E. Benefice, D. Garnier, and G. Ndiaye, High levels of habitual physical activity in west african adolescent girls and relationship to maturation, growth, and nutritional status: Results from a 3-year prospective study, American Journal of Human Biology, vol.23, issue.Suppl 3, pp.808-820, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/ajhb.1126

E. Benefice, D. Garnier, K. B. Simondon, and R. M. Malina, Relationship between stunting in infancy and growth and fat distribution during adolescence in Senegalese girls, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.55, issue.1, pp.50-58, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601121

E. Benefice, S. L. Monrroy, S. Jimenez, and R. Lopez, Nutritional status of Amerindian children from the Beni River (lowland Bolivia) as related to environmental, maternal and dietary factors, Public Health Nutrition, vol.9, issue.3, pp.327-335, 2006.
DOI : 10.1079/PHN2006852

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00192477

B. C. Campbell, P. W. Leslie, M. A. Little, and K. L. Campbell, Pubertal timing, hormones, and body composition among adolescent Turkana males, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.71, issue.4, pp.896-905, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/ajpa.20204

O. Claris, J. Beltrand, and C. Levy-marchal, Consequences of Intrauterine Growth and Early Neonatal Catch-Up Growth, Seminars in Perinatology, vol.34, issue.3, pp.207-210, 2010.
DOI : 10.1053/j.semperi.2010.02.005

B. Ferry, Donnees recentes sur la fecondite a Dakar (Senegal), 31e Année, pp.717-722, 1976.
DOI : 10.2307/1530765

D. Garnier and E. Benefice, Habitual physical activity of Senegalese adolescent girls under different working conditions, as assessed by a questionnaire and movement registration, Ann Hum Biol, vol.28, pp.79-97, 2001.

D. Garnier, K. B. Simondon, and E. Benefice, Longitudinal estimates of puberty timing in Senegalese adolescent girls, American Journal of Human Biology, vol.56, issue.6, pp.718-730, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/ajhb.20435

R. M. Garruto, M. A. Little, G. D. James, and D. E. Brown, Natural experimental models: The global search for biomedical paradigms among traditional, modernizing, and modern populations, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.96, issue.18, pp.10536-10543, 1999.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.18.10536

S. J. Gray, B. Wiebusch, and H. A. Akol, Cross-sectional growth of pastoralist Karimojong and Turkana children, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.28, issue.2, pp.193-202, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/ajpa.10377

K. A. Greaves, J. Puhl, T. Baranowski, D. Gruben, and D. Seale, Ethnic differences in anthropometric characteristics of young children and their parents, Hum Biol, vol.61, pp.459-477, 1989.

J. M. Gurney and D. B. Jelliffe, Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.26, pp.912-915, 1973.

Q. He, M. Horlick, J. Thornton, J. Wang, R. N. Pierson et al., Sex and Race Differences in Fat Distribution among Asian, African-American, and Caucasian Prepubertal Children, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.87, issue.5, pp.2164-2170, 2002.
DOI : 10.1210/jcem.87.5.8452

M. B. Horlick, M. Rosenbaum, M. Nicolson, L. S. Levine, B. Fedun et al., Effect of puberty on the relationship between circulating leptin and body composition, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.85, pp.2509-2518, 2000.

H. E. Kulin, N. Bwibo, D. Mutie, and S. J. Santner, The effect of chronic childhood malnutrition on pubertal growth and development, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.36, pp.527-536, 1982.

T. G. Lohman, A. Roche, and R. Martorell, Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.24, issue.8, 1988.
DOI : 10.1249/00005768-199208000-00020

R. M. Malina, Y. C. Huang, and K. H. Brown, Subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in adolescent girls of four ethnic groups, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, vol.19, pp.793-797, 1995.

R. M. Malina, S. Koziel, and T. Bielicki, Variation in subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution associated with age, sex, and maturation, American Journal of Human Biology, vol.3, issue.2, pp.189-200, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(1999)11:2<189::AID-AJHB7>3.0.CO;2-#

R. Martorell, F. S. Mendoza, R. O. Castillo, I. G. Pawson, and C. C. Budge, Short and plump physique of Mexican-American children, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.57, issue.4, pp.475-487, 1987.
DOI : 10.1002/ajpa.1330730410

G. M. Ndiaye and E. Benefice, Patterns of daily activity and time spent in bed of adult women and adolescent and preadolescent girls from a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, Annals of Human Biology, vol.14, issue.4, pp.454-469, 2007.
DOI : 10.1080/03670244.1992.9991257

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00192171

A. S. Parent, G. Teilmann, A. Juul, N. E. Skakkebaek, J. Toppari et al., The Timing of Normal Puberty and the Age Limits of Sexual Precocity: Variations around the World, Secular Trends, and Changes after Migration, Endocrine Reviews, vol.24, issue.5, pp.668-693, 2003.
DOI : 10.1210/er.2002-0019

L. R. Pawloski, J. B. Moore, L. Lumbi, and C. P. Rodriguez, A cross-sectional examination of growth indicators from Nicaraguan adolescent girls: a comparison of anthropometric data from their Guatemalan counterparts, Annals of Human Biology, vol.52, issue.6, pp.647-659, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/03014460400010561

M. A. Preece and M. J. Baines, A new family of mathematical models describing the human growth curve, Annals of Human Biology, vol.42, issue.1, pp.1-24, 1978.
DOI : 10.1080/03014467800002601

A. P. Riley, Determinants of Adolescent Fertility and Its Consequences for Maternal Health, with Special Reference to Rural Bangladesha, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.17, issue.5, pp.86-100, 1994.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb30390.x

M. F. Rolland-cachera, F. Bellisle, M. Deheeger, F. Pequignot, and M. Sempe, Influence of body fat distribution during childhood on body fat distribution in adulthood: a two-decade follow-up study, Int J Obes, vol.14, pp.473-481, 1990.

R. V. Santos, C. Junior, and C. E. , Socioeconomic transition and physical growth of Tupi-Monde Amerindian children of the Aripuana Park, Brazilian Amazon, Hum Biol, vol.63, pp.795-819, 1991.

R. M. Siervogel, E. W. Demerath, C. Schubert, K. E. Remsberg, W. C. Chumlea et al., Puberty and Body Composition, Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol.60, issue.1, pp.36-45, 2003.
DOI : 10.1159/000071224

K. B. Simondon, I. Simon, and F. Simondon, Nutritional status and age at menarche of Senegalese adolescents, Annals of Human Biology, vol.60, issue.3, pp.521-532, 1997.
DOI : 10.1080/03014469700005282

S. S. Sun, C. M. Schubert, W. C. Chumlea, A. F. Roche, H. E. Kulin et al., National Estimates of the Timing of Sexual Maturation and Racial Differences Among US Children, PEDIATRICS, vol.110, issue.5, pp.911-919, 2002.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.110.5.911

R. Walker, M. Gurven, K. Hill, A. Migliano, N. Chagnon et al., Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies, American Journal of Human Biology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.295-311, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/ajhb.20510

M. P. Warren and N. E. Perlroth, The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system, Journal of Endocrinology, vol.170, issue.1, pp.3-11, 2001.
DOI : 10.1677/joe.0.1700003

S. Williams and N. Dickson, Early growth, menarche, and adiposity rebound, The Lancet, vol.359, issue.9306, pp.580-581, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07715-2