D. Barraclough, The direct or MIT route for nitrogen immobilization: A 15N mirror image study with leucine and glycine, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.29, issue.1, pp.101-108, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00241-6

P. Bottner, M. Pansu, L. Sarmiento, D. Hervé, R. Callisaya-bautista et al., Factors controlling decomposition of soil organic matter in fallow systems of the high tropical Andes: A field simulation approach using 14C- and 15N-labelled plant material, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.38, issue.8, pp.2162-2177, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.01.029

N. J. Bradbury, A. P. Witmore, P. B. Hart, and D. S. Jenkinson, Modelling the fate of nitrogen in crop and soil in the years following application of 15N-labelled fertilizer to winter wheat, The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol.18, issue.03, pp.363-379, 1993.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1475-2743.1988.tb00733.x

P. C. Brookes, A. Landman, G. Pruden, and D. S. Jenkinson, Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.17, issue.6, pp.837-842, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(85)90144-0

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multimodel Inference A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 1998.

M. R. Carter, W. J. Parton, I. C. Rowland, J. E. Schultz, and G. R. Steed, Simulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen changes in cereal and pasture systems of southern Australia, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.31, issue.4, pp.481-491, 1993.
DOI : 10.1071/SR9930481

M. M. Coûteaux, L. Sarmiento, P. Bottner, D. Acevedo, and J. M. Thiéry, Decomposition of standard plant material along an altitudinal transect (65???3968m) in the tropical Andes, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.34, issue.1, pp.69-78, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00155-9

Z. Dou and R. H. Fox, Using NCSWAP to simulate seasonal nitrogen dynamics in soil and corn, Plant and Soil, vol.36, issue.2, pp.235-247, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00010130

U. Franko, Simulation of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in rural areas, Landbauforschung Volkenrode, pp.114-120, 1996.

P. Garnier, C. Néel, B. Mary, and F. Lafolie, Evaluation of a nitrogen transport and transformation model in a bare soil, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.81, issue.2, pp.253-268, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00374.x

A. Gundelwein, T. Müller-lupp, M. Sommerkorn, E. T. Haupt, E. M. Pfeiffer et al., Carbon in tundra soils in the Lake Labaz region of arctic Siberia, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.44, issue.5, pp.1164-1174, 2007.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1020289403835

R. G. Joergensen and T. Mueller, The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: Calibration of the kEN value, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.28, issue.1, pp.33-37, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(95)00101-8

W. T. Kaboré, M. Pansu, E. Hien, D. Brunet, B. G. Barthès et al., Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy applied to model the transformation of added organic materials in soil, Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol.20, issue.3, pp.339-351, 2012.
DOI : 10.1255/jnirs.1000

S. Kemmitt, C. Lanyon, I. Waite, Q. Wen, T. M. Addiscott et al., Mineralization of native soil organic matter is not regulated by the size, activity or composition of the soil microbial biomass???a new perspective, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.40, issue.1, pp.61-73, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.06.021

B. Lin, A. Sakoda, R. Shibasaki, N. Goto, and M. Suzuki, Modelling a global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems, Ecological Modelling, vol.135, issue.1, pp.89-110, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00372-0

S. Manzoni and A. Porporato, Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization: Theory and models across scales, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.41, issue.7, pp.1355-1379, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.031

T. Mueller, J. Magid, L. S. Jensen, H. Svendsen, and N. E. Nielsen, Soil C and N turnover after incorporation of chopped maize, barley straw and blue grass in the field: Evaluation of the DAISY soil???organic-matter submodel, Ecological Modelling, vol.111, issue.1, pp.1-15, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00094-5

C. Neill and J. Gignoux, Soil organic matter decomposition driven by microbial growth: A simple model for a complex network of interactions, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.38, issue.4, pp.803-811, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.07.007

B. Nicolardot, G. Guiraud, R. Chaussod, and C. G. , Mineralisation dans le sol de materiaux microbiens marques au carbone 14 et a l'azote 15: Quantification de l'azote de la biomasse microbienne, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.18, issue.3, pp.263-273, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(86)90060-X

B. Nicolardot, S. Recous, M. , and B. , Simulation of C and N mineralisation during crop residue decomposition: a simple dynamic model based on the C : N ration of the residues, Plant Soil, vol.83, pp.83-103, 2001.

M. Pansu and J. Gautheyrou, Handbook of soil analysis ? Mineralogical , organic and inorganic methods, 2006.

M. Pansu, Z. Sallih, and P. Bottner, Modelling of soil nitrogen forms after organic amendments under controlled conditions, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.30, issue.1, pp.19-29, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00087-4

M. Pansu, L. Thuriès, M. C. Larré-larrouy, and P. Bottner, Predicting N transformations from organic inputs in soil in relation to incubation time and biochemical composition, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.3, pp.353-363, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00285-7

M. Pansu, J. Gautheyrou, and J. Y. Loyer, Soil Analysis -Sampling, Instrumentation and Quality control, p.489, 2001.

M. Pansu, P. Bottner, L. Sarmiento, and K. Metselaar, Comparison of five soil organic matter decomposition models using data from a 14 C and 15 N labeling field experiment, Global Biogeochem. Cy, pp.4010-1029, 2004.

M. Pansu, Y. Martineau, and B. Saugier, A modelling method to quantify in situ the input of carbon from roots and the resulting C turnover in soil, Plant and Soil, vol.193, issue.1-2, pp.103-12010, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s11104-008-9791-1

M. Pansu, L. Sarmiento, M. A. Rujano, M. Ablan, D. Acevedo et al., Modeling Organic transformations by Micro- Organisms of Soils in six contrasting ecosystems: validation of the MOMOS model, Global Biogeochem. Cy, pp.10-1029, 2010.

W. J. Parton, D. S. Schimel, C. V. Cole, and D. S. Ojima, Analysis of Factors Controlling Soil Organic Matter Levels in Great Plains Grasslands1, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.51, issue.5, pp.1173-1179, 1987.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100050015x

F. W. Penning-de-vries, D. M. Jansen, H. F. Ten-berge, and A. Bakema, Simulation of ecophysiological processes of growth in several annual crops, p.271, 1989.

M. Quemada and M. L. Cabrera, CERES-N Model Predictions of Nitrogen Mineralized from Cover Crop Residues, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.59, issue.4, pp.1059-1065, 1995.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1995.03615995005900040015x

M. Reichstein, M. Bahn, P. Ciais, D. Frank, M. D. Mahecha et al., Climate extremes and the carbon cycle, Nature, vol.478, issue.9, pp.287-29510, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/nature12350

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01444818

J. Richter, D. K. Benbi, T. Satyanarayana, N. J. Bhavdish, and A. Prakash, Modeling of nitrogen transformations and translocations, Plant Soil, Microorganisms in Environmental Management. Microbes and Environment, pp.109-121, 1996.

R. W. Sterner and J. J. Elser, Ecological stoichimometry. The biology of elements from molecules to biosphere, 2002.

L. Thuriès, M. Pansu, M. C. Larré-larrouy, and C. Feller, Biochemical composition and mineralization kinetics of organic inputs in a sandy soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.34, issue.2, pp.239-250, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00178-X

K. E. Todd-brown, F. M. Hopkins, S. N. Kivlin, M. Jennifer, J. M. Talbot et al., A framework for representing microbial decomposition in coupled climate models, Biogeochemistry, vol.19, issue.12, pp.19-3310, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10533-011-9635-6

K. K. Treseder, T. C. Balser, M. A. Bradford, E. L. Brodie, E. A. Dubinsky et al., Integrating microbial ecology into ecosystem models: challenges and priorities, Biogeochemistry, vol.219, issue.1-3, pp.7-1810, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10533-011-9636-5

J. A. Van-veen, J. N. Ladd, and M. Amato, Turnover of carbon and nitrogen through the microbial biomass in a sandy loam and a clay soil incubated with [14C(U)]glucose and [15N](NH4)2So4 under different moisture regimes, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.17, issue.6, pp.747-756, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(85)90128-2

H. Wallander, L. O. Nilsson, D. Hagerberg, and U. And-rosengren, Direct estimates of C:N ratios of ectomycorrhizal mycelia collected from Norway spruce forest soils, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.7, pp.997-999, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00121-4