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La chlordécone est elle biodégradable et biodisponible? Quelques considérations issues de la littérature et résultats expérimentaux préliminaires

Abstract : Chlordecone is an organochlorine insecticide of the bishomocubane family, which is responsible for neurological and reproductive disorders in Humans. Its manufacture and use were banned in the USA in 1976, but it continued to be used in the West Indies to fight against the banana weevil until 1993. At the time of writing, that is to say 17 years after the ban on its use in the West Indies, the molecule is still persistent in soils where it was spread causing diffuse contamination of other environmental compartments (surface water, groundwater, coastal areas) and associated food resources (crops, farm animals, fish, crustaceans, etc.) with health consequences for Humans which just start to be percieved. Today, the health and economic crises associated with chlordecone are globally managed. A definitive solution to the problem, however, would be to eliminate the source, that is, to destroy the chlordecone still present in the soil. One of the cheapest and most environmentally friendly destruction routes is microbial degradation. Until now, due to its chemical characteristics (cage structure, high steric hindrance, low solubility and high hydrophobicity), chlordecone is however considered non-biodegradable by the French scientific community. In this work we will focus on (i) showing that several indices available in the old literature generated following the environmental crisis of 1976 in the USA suggest that chlordecone could be much more susceptible to a microbial attack than it seems. and (ii) to report the preliminary results of an ongoing theoretical thermodynamic study and analysis of chlordecone at the inlet and outlet of methanogenic reactors processing rum distillery vinasses which reinforce this idea. The article will also seek to suggest avenues for explaining the apparent lack of degradation of chlordecone in West Indian soils and will examine the fate of this molecule when soil particles come into contact with the aquatic environment.
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Herve Macarie, Damien Devault, Isabel Sastre, Luc Rangon, Alain Soler, et al.. La chlordécone est elle biodégradable et biodisponible? Quelques considérations issues de la littérature et résultats expérimentaux préliminaires. XXXXIème congrès du Groupe Français des Pesticides, May 2011, Orléans, France. ⟨ird-02949747⟩

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