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Present-day genetic composition suggests contrasting demographic histories of two dominant chaetognaths of the North-East Atlantic, Sagitta elegans and S. setosa

Abstract : Sagitta elegans and S. setosa are the two dominant chaetognaths in the NorthEast (NE) Atlantic. They are closely related and have a similar ecology and life history, but differ in distributional ranges. Sagitta setosa is a typical neritic species occurring exclusively above shelf regions, whereas S. elegans is a more oceanic species with a widespread distribution. We hypothesised that neritic species, because of smaller and more fragmented populations, would have been more vulnerable to population bottlenecks resulting from range contractions during Pleistocene glaciations than oceanic species. To test this hypothesis we compared mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II DNA sequences of S. elegans and S. setosa from sampling locations across the NE Atlantic. Both species displayed very high levels of genetic diversity with unique haplotypes for every sequenced individual and an approximately three times higher level of nucleotide diversity in S. elegans (0.061) compared to S. setosa (0.021). Sagitta setosa mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes produced a star-like phylogeny and a uni-modal mismatch distribution indicative of a bottleneck followed by population expansion. In contrast, S. elegans had a deeper mtDNA phylogeny and a multi-modal mismatch distribution as would be expected from a more stable population. Neutrality tests indicated that assumptions of the standard neutral model were violated for both species and results from the McDonald-Kreitman test suggested that selection played a role in the evolution of their mitochondrial DNA. Congruent with these results, both species had much smaller effective population sizes estimated from genetic data when compared to census population sizes estimated from abundance data, with a factor of $10 8-10 9 difference. Assuming that selective effects are comparable for the two species, we conclude that the difference in genetic signature can only be explained by contrasting demographic histories. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the NE Atlantic, the neritic S. setosa has been more severely affected by population bottlenecks resulting from Pleistocene range shifts than the more oceanic S. elegans.
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https://hal.ird.fr/ird-03044192
Contributor : Cecile Fauvelot <>
Submitted on : Monday, December 7, 2020 - 5:00:07 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, December 13, 2020 - 3:06:56 AM
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K Peijnenburg, E van Haastrecht, C Fauvelot. Present-day genetic composition suggests contrasting demographic histories of two dominant chaetognaths of the North-East Atlantic, Sagitta elegans and S. setosa. Marine Biology, Springer Verlag, 2005, 147, pp.1279 - 1289. ⟨10.1007/s00227-005-0041-2⟩. ⟨ird-03044192⟩

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