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Response of some Andean cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to temperature: Effects on germination, phenology, growth and freezing

Abstract : This article presents various experiments conducted under semi-controlled conditions to determine the effects of temperature on germination, phenology, growth and freezing in Chenopodium quinoa, a pseudocereal originating from the cold and dry Andean altiplano Traditional landraces and recently released cultivars from distinct geographical origins were compared in order to look for local adaptation or breeding improvement with respect to low temperatures. Germination was evaluated in ten cultivars at temperatures between 2 and 20 °C. Plant growth and development were examined in three cultivars over the growing cycle, under minimum temperature between 8 and 13 °C and maximum temperature between 20 and 28 °C. The thermal time concept was used to compare the various treatments and estimate the phyllochron, as well as the base temperature and optimum temperature for leaf appearance, time to flowering and leaf width growth. Two cultivars at the vegetative stage were compared for night freezing tolerance down to -6 °C, registering leaf exotherms and plant survival rate. The influence of plant water status and the possible protective or detrimental role of leaf epidermal vesicles were also examined. Low temperatures down to 2 °C delayed germination without impeding it totally. Base temperature for germination varied between -1.9 and +0.2 °C, with negative values in 9 cultivars out of 10. Thermal sensitivity in germination was not related to the geographic origin of the cultivars. Leaf appearance and time to flowering showed similar base temperatures near 1 °C. Phyllochron varied from 12.9 to 17.2 °Cd with lower values in the two recently released varieties than in the traditional landrace. Leaf width increased from a base temperature around 6 °C up to an optimum temperature between 20 and 22.5 °C. Freezing experiments showed that no plant could survive after 4 hours at -6 °C, while no serious effect was noted down to -3 °C. Leaf exotherms confirmed that ice nucleation occurred between -5 and -6 °C in most of the plants, the traditional landrace showing a lower freezing tolerance than the selected line. Low leaf water status delayed the freezing process, while leaf vesicles did not seem to play any protective or detrimental role towards leaf freezing. Implications of these results for quinoa crop adaptation to the Andean environment are discussed.
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Contributor : Thierry Winkel Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Wednesday, October 13, 2021 - 3:26:10 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 9, 2022 - 3:41:02 AM

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J.F. Bois, T. Winkel, J.P. Lhomme, J.P. Raffaillac, A. Rocheteau. Response of some Andean cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to temperature: Effects on germination, phenology, growth and freezing. European Journal of Agronomy, 2006, 25 (4), pp.299-308. ⟨10.1016/j.eja.2006.06.007⟩. ⟨ird-03376545⟩



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